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Junkers JU88 twin bomber

German aircraft over East Lothian


East Lothian’s air war was at its most active in the early years of the 39-45 war. After 1943 incursions by the Luftwaffe steadily declined as the cost of the necessarily long-distance incursions rose and the Luftwaffe was drawn ever deeper into the chilly vastnesses of the Russian campaign, Operation Barbarossa. The main attraction of the Lothians for the Luftwaffe was, in fact, naval. In addition to reconnaissance flights a number of bombing raids were mounted on Allied shipping in the Forth either to bomb ships directly or to lay mines in the shipping lanes. As one part of the efforts to protect the Forth basin from these attacks, fighter squadrons were based at Drem, the main RAF fighter station in the county.


Monday, 16th October 1939: first Luftwaffe raid over the UK mainland


This early afternoon raid by nine JU88s was the first Luftwaffe attack launched over mainland UK. Despite local rumours at the time the Forth Bridge was not the intended target. Rather this was HMS Hood but, on this occasion, Hood escaped attention and damage as it was in dry dock and the pilots were under orders not to bomb targets ashore. As a consequence they turned their attack onto HMS Southampton, HMS Mowhawk and HMS Edinburgh and damage and casualties resulted. Spitfires from 602 Squadron (City of Glasgow), based at Drem and 603 Squadron (City of Edinburgh) based at Turnhouse, were scrambled to intercept. These were both Auxiliary Squadrons whose pilots were normally employed in many different civilian walks of life. To them went the first aerial success of the war. Flight Lieutenant Pat Gifford, 603 Squadron, shot down the very first one which crashed into the Forth off the coast at Port Seton. Very soon after Flight Lieutenant George Pinkerton,602 Squadron, bagged one off Crail.


The commanding officer of the Forth raid squadron, 1/KG30, from Syllt was Hauptman Helmut Pohle. His plane was shot down by Pinkerton just after Pat Gifford had shot down Oberleutnant Hans Storp’s plane off the East Lothian coast.  The Port Seton fishing boat, the Dayspring, skippered by John Dickson Snr and crewed by his sons, John and William and by Sandy and Andrew Harkness was treated to a grandstand view of the raid and it subsequent finale off Port Seton and Crail. John stopped fishing and sailed the Dayspring over to Storp’s aircraft’s crash site where he and the crew were able to rescue, cut and bruised but alive, three of the German crew including Storp, Feldwebel Hans George Hielscher and Feldwebel Hugo Rohnke. Their gunner, Obergefreiter Kramer, died and went down with the plane. Grateful at being rescued, Hans Storp gave John Dickson Snr a gold ring, one later passed on to his son, also called John.